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Answer the questions with at least 1 reference per question. The length of each question should be a minimum of 6-8 sentences. • What is the definition of a vulnerability? What are some key characteristics and how are they classified according to industry standard? What are the root causes of vulnerabilities, motivations, and techniques utilized from threat actors? What mitigations could be used to secure them? Provide an example. • Before conducting a penetration test, is it important to understand the legal requirements and the scope of work before you begin. Why? Research the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, then identify the penalties associated with penetration testing without written permission. Why would it be important to have a clearly stated scope of work? Finally, identify what scope creep is and the dangers associated. • Research 18 U.S.C. 1030, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Summarize the law from a penetration tester’s point of view. Why must a penetration tester be aware of the laws when performing their job duties? Would a legal contract between the tester and the organization be required? Why or why not? • Evaluate security models (Bell-La Padula, Biba, Clark Wilson, Brewer Nash, multi-level security). Choose two of the models and compare and contrast their advantages and disadvantages as related to business. • Explain OSSTM and how it might be useful as a penetration tester. Describe at least one other security assessment methodology that might be useful as a pen tester. • Examining the functionality of user and administrative privileges in an operating system or network. What effects can administrative access have on a vulnerability? Provide an example. • What are the two types of source code analysis available to testers? Provide a definition and brief summary of each. Which would you choose to use to identify a flaw and why? How would a flaw in source code become a vulnerability? Provide an example. • In your lab, you identified privilege escalation, as well as multiple other attack types. List a minimum of four other attacks not discussed and provide a brief summary of each. • What is an attack vector? Research the OWASP Top Ten. How would this knowledge help to defend your network against future attacks? Why is it important to understand these attack types? • Your company has recently identified a vulnerability outlined in the OWASP Top Ten. Refer to the website provided in the topic Resources. Choose one vulnerability and provide a brief summary of the issue. What mitigation steps could be utilized to offset the vulnerability from a server and network standpoint? • Research exploit databases online. Utilizing Rapid7 or Exploit-DB, research known Windows server 2019 or Linksys server vulnerabilities. Provide a link and brief summary of the vulnerability. What mitigation strategy would you utilize to stop such an attack? (The selected vulnerability cannot be the same one used in the previous two labs. Students are not authorized to utilize the same vulnerability as another student. Student responses should provide an opposing view or mitigation strategy.) • Research firewall types. Provide a brief summary of a web application firewall, comparing and contrasting against two other types. Be sure to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each firewall type. Provide an example of usage. • A recent procedure was put into place by the director of IT. However, you notice an inherent flaw in the procedure that could cause untold damages to the systems in place costing the organization an excessive monetary loss. How would you approach the director to ensure they are aware of the issue? What policy or procedures would you recommend implementing to ensure a validation process is in place and flaws in the procedure or policy are identified before implementation? • Compare and contrast basic process modeling and system modeling techniques. • Internet use within any business has become commonplace. Given the recent work from home movement, evaluate the implication of internet use within a small or medium-sized business from the perspective of intellectual property and data protection. How do growing trends in technology hinder or help the growth in home-based workers? • What laws provide U.S. entities the authority to perform cyber operations? Provide at least two laws.